Integrated Water Resources Assessment of Udaipur District, Rajasthan, India

The overall objective of the project is to develop sustainable groundwater management in Undaipur District, Rajasthan India

State of the art and rationale

Indian water resources are under strain from increasing population, intensified agricultural production, industrial development, changing food habits with growing income as well as pollution of the surface and subsurface waters. Climate change aggravates the problem with higher temperatures, longer droughts and increased intensity of rainfall and reduced number of rainy days during the monsoon season (Amit et al., 2012). This has led to concerns whether water demands can be met while achieving food and nutrition security for the growing population and at the same time protecting the ecosystems.

The semi-arid state of Rajasthan is particularly vulnerable (Rajasthan Water Assessment, 2013). It has 10% of India’s area but only about 1% of the water resources. Although Rajasthan is mainly rural, the rate of urbanization has increased considerably over the last decades (Fact finding mission report, 2015). One of the growing urban areas is Udaipur City, which now is the sixth largest city in Rajasthan and also known as the ‘city of lakes’ in India.

This has led to increased pressure on the water resources. Nearly 50% of poorer households lack a reliable water supply (Fact finding mission report, 2015). Likewise, the sewage treatment is inadequate and untreated sewage water is diverted to rivers and lakes (Williams et al., 2019) and infiltrates to groundwater causing environmental and health problems. Thus, the Udaipur District is facing serious problems and challenges in securing adequate water supply of acceptable quality and in mitigating pollution of the water resources.

The water supply of the city is unique as it is largely based on water from the lakes around the city. Nearby villages use groundwater (Groundwater Year Book, 2017). Hard rock is the region’s dominant lithology; groundwater occurrence is mainly controlled by the structural features of the rock system often resulting in limited yield. In many areas, groundwater is overexploited (Government of India, 2013).

Proper integrated water resources management in the district is hampered by insufficient knowledge of the overall water balance. The seasonal Ayad River flows through Udaipur City connecting the lakes. The seasonal and annual dynamics of this water system is poorly known and understood. To improve the understanding of the system and thus establish a basis for better and sustainable water management, we propose to develop an integrated hydrological and hydraulic model, which considers all important hydrological fluxes. By such a model various management schemes can be analyzed under both current and future climatic conditions.

Currently, participation of citizens and stakeholders in the management of the surface and ground water resources is limited (Mangal et al., 2015). Citizen science is an emerging discipline, which can contribute to better utilization and preservation of the water resources, and at the same time help building capacity and enhance awareness related to efficient and sustainable water management among the citizens. Citizen science is also a methodology to improve data collection through crowd sourcing of data in data-scarce catchments where a better understanding of the water resources is required (Walker et al., 2019a). Hereby important hydrological and hydraulic parameters and time series of hydrological and climatic variables can be obtained. These data constitute invaluable information for developing an integrated hydrological model for the catchment and thus for obtaining improved knowledge of the system behavior.

Denmark has developed advanced research expertise and knowledge-based sustainable practices within groundwater management in particular and integrated water resources management in general, integral to larger environment planning and protection. Integrated water resources management for sustained and high-value uses requires knowledge of the catchment’s surface and subsurface characteristics and the interactions between surface and subsurface waters. It also demands knowledge of the human interaction with the water resources and how to properly mitigate adverse effects and ensure sustainable water resources exploitation. This is particularly vital in arid and semi-arid regions where the water resources are under relatively heavier pressure of intensive use. Udaipur City is one such example (Mangal et al., 2015).

In this project, we seek to clarify for the first time the overall water balance as well as the seasonal and annual dynamics of the water system of Udaipur District by using traditional and innovative field measurement techniques including citizen science in tandem with state-of-theart hydrological modeling.

We propose applying the distributed hydrological model MIKE SHE (Abbott et al., 1986) to the Ayad River catchment within which Udaipur City is located. The model is usually parameterized according to knowledge of land surface and subsurface characteristics, driven by climatic measurements and estimates, and calibrated against field measurements of groundwater heads and river discharges. This is a standard method in temperate regions (Henriksen et al., 2003), but more challenging in arid and semi-arid regions with seasonal rivers (Garg et al., 2013). Given the scarcity of monitoring data in the area, satellite platforms offer an increasingly wealth of remotely sensed hydrology-relevant data, which can be used to drive and validate integrated models (Stisen et al., 2008). New satellite platforms, e.g. the Sentinel satellite (Yang and Chen, 2017), provide fine-resolution spatial and temporal data, which are suitable for mapping free water surfaces. This information is very important for acquiring data on flow occurrences in river stretches and in flood plains during flooding in systems with limited hydrometric monitoring. This data can be used for constraining model simulations of flow through rivers and lakes. Data from the SMOS (Kerr et al., 2010) and SMAP (Entekhabi et al., 2010) satellites provide very useful information on soil moisture. However, these data are supplied on a larger spatial resolution and thus suitable downscaling procedures need to be applied before the data can be used for hydrological purposes (Meyer et al., 2019; Montzka et al., 2018). The developed model will provide an innovative scientifically-based, tested tool to understand the water resources of the system.

We propose to develop a state-of-the-art, web-enabled, and GIS-supported data support system (DSS), which will contain time series of hydrological and meteorological data as well as geo-referenced information on physical elements of the Ayad River catchment. This system will not only provide ease of storage, retrieval and analysis of data required for the project but also support statistical analysis, visualization of relevant variables and parameters, and provide a datalink to the proposed integrated hydrological and hydraulic model.

The importance of water resources for livelihoods and environments, coupled with the looming challenges of climate change, population growth and other stressors (IPPC, 2014), highlight the need for novel approaches to generate new knowledge of the water resources, enhance community awareness of their importance, and develop sustainable management. Citizen science is a proven methodology to involve stakeholders and citizen in managing environmental resources (Walker et al., 2019a; Walker et al., 2019b). The discipline is emerging as a viable way to support hydrological research, especially in low and middleincome countries where data scarcity is more pronounced and conventional monitoring methods are expensive and logistically challenging. There are only a few noteworthy examples where these approaches are implemented in low-income countries, e.g. Kenya (Weeser et al., 2018), Ethiopia (Walker et al., 2016), Tanzania (Gomani et al., 2010) and South Africa (Kongo et al., 2010). Uptake of citizen science in hydrology in low-income countries is gradually rising, although still at its infancy. Most of the programs are located in North America and Europe (Njue et al., 2019).

The project will further develop and adapt the citizen science approach for integrated surfacegroundwater systems to enhance data collection, empower water users to co-manage their resources, and raise awareness and insights into best management practices, supporting and supported by the modelling approach. The project leverage on the potential of citizen science to complement conventional scientific data collection and knowledge generation for water resource management. In the process, the citizens become centrally involved in the planning of decisions related to water resource management (Overdevest et al., 2004).

The overarching challenges that will be addressed through the citizen science approach of data collection include bridging knowledge and communication gap between citizens and scientists through improved interaction and community access to decision making. Citizen science’s democratic nature promotes a more equitable form of decision-making, allowing for meaningful contributions to discussions and policymaking (Bulkeley and Mol, 2003). In a country constrained by scarce data, like India, citizen science has the potential to generate extensive scientific datasets cost-effectively.

The project group behind the proposal held a three-day workshop at the Vidya Bhawan Polytechnic, Udaipur, India, in the period July 2-4 2019, to jointly shape and formulate the proposal. As part of the workshop municipality and state officials, local experts in surface water and groundwater resources as well as representatives from local community organizations presented their ideas and views. A field visit to the study area (Udaipur District) included an inspection of pertinent hydrological features.


The proposed research has important strategic relevance for both Denmark and India. The research community and the water administration of the municipality of Udaipur and the state of Rajasthanin will benefit from Danish capacity, while the Danish community gains from partnership and exchange of knowledge with Indian institutions to broaden their research perspective and portfolio of practical solutions. The results obtained, while supporting and tailoring tools to specific issues in the Udaipur District, will be of generic nature and can be applicable to other regions in India with similar surface and subsurface characteristics.

The project links and contributes to the objectives of the Strategic Sector Cooperation under the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs focusing on improving the management of the water resources in Udaipur. This program entails cooperation between city of Aarhus, Aarhus Vand and Udaipur Municipality Corporation.

Further, the project links to the mission of Government of India, initiated by the Prime Minister, to involve all stakeholders in scientific management of water resources for ensuring water sustainability. The project supports the integrated water resources initiative of Government of India such as the newly formed Jal Shakti (Ministry of Water) and the National Water Policy, which recognizes the ecological needs of river systems.

The project also links to ongoing citizen science initiatives including MARVI (Managing Aquifer Recharge and Sustaining Groundwater Use through Village-level Intervention, The project relates to several of the Sustainable Development Goals, in particular Goal no. 6 ‘Clean Water and Sanitation’, Goal no. 11 ‘Sustainable cities and communities’, and Goal no. 13 ‘Climate action’.


The overall objective of the project is to improve the basis for developing sustainable integrated water resources management in the Udaipur District.

This is achieved through:

  1. Improvement of integrated water resources management in the Udaipur District through effective research partnership with Denmark.
  2. Establishment of a data support system for easy storage, retrieval, statistical analysis, and visualization of relevant water quantity and water quality parameters and with interfaces to the integrated hydrological model.
  3. Improvement of the understanding of the hydrological and hydraulic functioning of the Ayad River system and the associated catchment area.
  4. Improvement of the understanding of the water quality conditions of the system.
  5. Development of smart sensor network for monitoring water levels at various locations in the system.
  6. Analysis of water resources management schemes for current and future conditions under the impact of climate change.
  7. Involvement of local stakeholders and business community in the research (citizen science).
  8. Increase the research capacity in the state of Rajasthan within data handling, integrated hydrological modelling, water resources management, and citizen science.

Our scientific hypotheses and motivations are:

  1. Advancement of the scientific understanding of the functioning and dynamics of Ayad River system to improve the basis for effective integrated water resources management. The semi-arid Ayad River system has seasonal rivers and in these systems, groundwater recharge is irregular in both time and space. Furthermore, the lakes play an overarching role in system behavior. All these factors make the system complex why we seek to advance the hydrological understanding of such a system.
  2. The project will develop an integrated and state-of-the-art hydrological model for Ayad River. Calibration of such a model is more challenging in a semi-arid region due to the large difference in flow between monsoon and dry seasons. The project will develop innovative calibration techniques for integrated models under such climatic conditions based on optimization of multiple objectives in combination with the pilot point technique and regularization (Doherty, 2015).
  3. Ground-based data for setting up and calibrating the integrated model is sparse and uncertain. Satellite platforms offer a wealth of remotely sensed hydrological data, which will be explored and used for driving and validating the model (Stisen et al., 2008). Combining in an efficient manner ground-based and satellite-based data for developing an integrated model for water management purposes in a semi-arid area is a scientific question we will address.
  4. Development of a novel data support system targeted to the particular water system for collecting, validating, analyzing, and presenting data.
  5. Further development of citizen science as a method of collecting useful data to inform hydrological models in data scarce areas. The project will provide suitable sensors and instrumentation for easy retrieval of hydrological and climatological data. It will further develop an app, custom-tailored to the particular system, for transmitting data to the data support system.
  6. Demonstration of citizen science as an efficient method to involve stakeholders in the management of their water and environmental resources.

Expected outcomes and outputs

We expect to adapt and develop new and innovative research methodologies, findings, outputs, and outcomes related to the above hypotheses and motivations. Results will be published in high-impact international journals and presented at national and international conferences by both Danish and Indian researchers.

An important outcome of the project is strengthening of India’s research capacity on integrated water resources management. This is secured by assigning Indian research assistants and postgraduate researchers to the project. They will be working closely together with a postdoc in Denmark and supervised by a multi-institutional team of experienced and internationally recognized scientists. Furthermore, the Indian junior scientists will make research visits to Denmark to receive training in disciplines of relevance for their research.

Municipal and state water administrations in India will benefit from the project-developed knowledge and tools. Local stakeholders will benefit through the citizen science approaches and data management tools. Finally, broader stakeholder groups will learn of the project outcome through public seminars and meetings.


The research will focus on the Ayad catchment (about 550 km2 ) (Mehta, 2009). The Ayad River rises in the Aravalli hills north-west of Udaipur City, runs through the city, and with its tributaries, drains Udaipur District. The catchment area is characterized as semi-arid with an annual mean rainfall of about 640 mm. The river is monsoon fed giving rise to a seasonal flow system. Regulation and damming of the river at various locations have created several lakes forming an interconnected system of large water bodies and river stretches (Mehta, 2009). The occurrence of groundwater in the district is controlled by the topographic and structural features of the rock formations (Government of India, 2013). In these formations, fissures and structurally weak planes control groundwater flow.

The lakes are the major sources of water supply of Udaipur City while groundwater pumping from deep wells and step wells only account for about 10% of the total water supply (City Development Plan, 2014). In addition, interbasin water transfer schemes are implemented to augment the water supply to the city. Due to growing population and expansion of industrial and tourism, the water demand is steadily increasing. The water system is fragile and sensitive to annual variations in climate, notably delays and reduced rainfall during monsoons. Climate change will exacerbate this tendency. Currently, the situation is unsustainable due to overexploitation of the water resources. Moreover, the environmental and ecological balance of the surface water system has deteriorated considerably due to uncontrolled inflow of untreated sewage.

To provide a platform for developing sustainable development as well as protection and management of the water resources, better knowledge of the water resources dynamics is urgently required.

The research will be organized into six work packages and include the following activities:

WP1: Data collection and organization

  1. Collection of existing spatial data and time series from the catchment, including climate data, geological data and maps, hydraulic head measurements, water abstractions, water transfers, soil maps, digital elevation data, land-use maps, and river level/discharge.
  2. Hydrological and hydrogeological field investigations including water level and flow measurements, borehole logging of existing wells and geophysical mapping.
  3. Installation of smart sensor network for water level measurements in river segments and lakes.
  4. Development of data support system (DSS) with the following features:
    1. Incorporation of spider bots/web crawlers to automatically scroll selected web pages and download data, e.g. remotely sensed hydrological data available from satellite platforms;
    2. Capacity to incorporate data streams from smart sensor networks;
    3. Support smartphone based interactive applications developed to assist citizen science;
    4. User-friendly presentation of collected and analysed data sets through a customisable Graphic User Interface (GUI);
    5. Support to citizen science initiatives through dissemination of information and knowledge, and communication through web portals. The portal will be part of the DSS and provide access to relevant stored information. It will include GIS facilities to visualize and interact with spatial information, compare and visualize different scenarios, and access a comprehensive library of documents and reports.

WP2: Development and calibration of integrated hydrological model for Ayad River system

  1. Identification of relevant remote sensing products to obtain spatial and temporal data for land-use, vegetation characteristics (NDVI, albedo), soil moisture, precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface temperature, and free water surfaces (rivers/wetlands).
  2. Development of scripts for retrieval and downscaling of remote sensing data.
  3. Development of an integrated and distributed hydrological and hydraulic model for the Ayad catchment based on the MIKE SHE code.
  4. Calibration of the model using state-of-the-art calibration techniques based on pilot points and regularization (Doherty, 2015) to incorporate spatial heterogeneity in the model and perform uncertainty analyses.
  5. Model analyses of water balances and flow dynamics.

WP3: Inventory of water quality

  1. Identification of point and non-point pollution sources including industrial pollution, agricultural runoff and domestic pollution as well as water treatment capacities of the city. Data collected from the relevant departments will be complemented by citizen-based monitoring.
  2. Collection of existing spatial data and time series of water quality parameters, e.g. harmful bacteria, pH, specific conductance, electrical conductivity, hardness, chloride, fluoride, iron and nitrate. Visible pollution indicated by the presence of duckweed, aquatic ferns like Azolla, and Hydrophytes like Hydrilla will be inventoried.
  3. Mapping of surface temperature and algae blooming using satellite data. Recent developments in remote sensing enable monitoring of parameters like chlorophyll a, phytoplankton and temperature from space. The chlorophyll pigment colors the water green such that phytoplankton can be detected from space with dedicated sensors like Sentinel-2 (Ansper and Alikas, 2019; Pereira-Sandoval et al., 2019) and MODIS (Huangg et al., 2019).
  4. Performing mass balances of the system.

WP4: Citizen science

  1. Developing an approach and process for citizen science, stakeholder identification, assessment, and introductory sessions.
  2. Training and equipping local stakeholders to collect essential spatial and temporal data such as groundwater levels, surface water levels, stream flow, rainfall, and flooding extent. Conducting theoretical and practical training for the citizens of Udaipur City, e.g. school children, college students, NGOs, and members of residential welfare association.
  3. Further development of smartphone application for collecting data via crowd sourcing and analyzing data.
  4. Participatory monitoring and evaluation.

WP5: Demonstration and outreach

  1. Identification of demonstration site in mini-catchment area, overlaid by population density and water deficit stresses. Assessment of water footprint of demonstration site and possibility of better water use.
  2. Analysis of water resources conditions and water management options for current and future climate scenarios.
  3. Development of training modules in data analysis and visualization.
  4. Development of education program to inform and engage local stakeholders in the scientific understanding of the functioning and the dynamics of the Ayad River system. The program will focus on:
    1. Understanding the hydrological system of Udaipur City, creating awareness among stakeholders on their role in managing ecosystems;
    2. Training of decision makers, urban planners and government officials in the use of the data support system and the hydrological model to better understand the current and future scenarios of water resources in Udaipur District and to investigate effective resources management.

WP6: Capacity strengthening

  1. Young researchers will form the base of the planned research, as they will be fully dedicated to the project. The researchers will spend time in India and Denmark collaborating on fieldwork, journal papers, and exchange of knowledge and data to meet the research goals and improve project outputs and synergy.

Organization and management

Project partners:

  1. University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Denmark, 27 m.m. + 2 m.m. in-kind (PI: Professor Dr. Karsten H. Jensen; Postdoc NN1).
  2. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Denmark, 3.5 m.m. + 0.4 m.m. inkind (CO-PIs: Senior Researcher Dr. Simon Stisen, Researcher Dr. Sachin Karan).
  3. Vidya Bhawan Polytechnic (VBP), India, 41 m.m. + 3 m.m. in-kind, (CO-PI: Principal and Lead Researcher Dr. Anil Mehta; Research Assistant Jaidev Joshi, Postdoc Umashree Pancholy).
  4. DHI - India, India (owned by DHI Group Denmark), 24 m.m. + 2 m.m. in-kind (CO-PI: Managing Director Dr. Flemming Jakobsen; Postdoc NN3).
  5. Development Alternatives (DA), India, 36.5 m.m. + 2.5 m.m. in-kind (CO-PIs: Vice President Dr. Vijaya Lakshmi, Senior Programme Director MSc Gitika Goswami; Research Assistant Medha, Postdoc NN4).

University of Copenhagen (UCPH) has an international recognized expertise in catchment modelling, hydrological processes, and application of remote sensing data. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) has national and international expertise in groundwater resources management and is responsible for the development and maintenance of the research-based integrated water resources model (DK model) for the entire Denmark based on the MIKE SHE code.

Vidya Bhawan Polytechnic (VBP) has expertise in integrated water resources management, field surveys, citizen science, and monitoring of water resources quantity and quality.

DHI, represented by the local office in India, is a world-renowned independent consulting and research institute with expertise in all water environments and developer of state-of-the-art modelling software including the MIKE SHE code, to be used in the proposed project.

Development Alternatives (DA), a social enterprise dedicated to sustainable development, is a research and action organization. It has past experience in studying Udaipur City water flows

and engaging citizens (especially school children) in water resource monitoring.

The primary responsibilities of the individual partners are:

UCPH: Project management, retrieval and application of remote sensing data, development and calibration of the integrated model, and capacity strengthening of Indian researchers.

GEUS: Development of integrated model, water quality assessments, capacity strengthening of Indian postgraduate researchers.

VBP: Data collection and analysis, field investigations, implementation of data support system, citizen science, demonstration and outreach.

DHI: Modeling support of the MIKE SHE code, initial development of integrated model, and development of data support system.

DA: Data collection and analysis, water quality assessments, citizen science, demonstration and outreach.

The PI of the project is Professor Karsten Høgh Jensen. He has more than 35 years of experience in water resources research. He has been PI for a number of major research programs and is currently director of HOBE - the Danish Hydrological Observatory and PI for a project granted by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs on ‘Improving Sustainable Groundwater Use in South Africa’. He has educated 39 PhDs and 20 Postdocs. He has published 120 papers in international journals and currently he holds a Web of Science H-index of 30.

Co-PI’s are Dr. Simon Stisen, Dr. Sachin Karan, Dr. Anil Metha, Dr. Flemming Jakobsen, Dr. Vijaya Lakshmi, Dr. Gitika Goswami, Dr. Sneha Singh and Dr. Sapna Jarial. These researchers will form the Steering Committee (SC) of the project. Over the project period of 36 months, the SC will meet three times in India. Skype meetings will be organized every second month or as required.

The UCPH postdoc will spend 14 days in India to collaborate on integrated hydrological modeling. Up to five junior researchers from India will spend 14 days at UCPH/GEUS to receive training in hydrological modelling, integrated water resources management, data handling, and citizen science.

The senior researchers will contribute actively to the research activities and provide scientific guidance of the junior researchers. Additionally, it is anticipated that BSc and MSc students from both India and Denmark will contribute to the research.

The project period has a planned duration of 36 months, starting April 1, 2020.

A project advisory board will be formed consisting of key persons representing the Strategic Sector Cooperation between city of Udaipur, India, and city of Aarhus, Denmark, on Sustainable Urban Water Management, including the Sector Counsellor and representatives from Aarhus Municipality, Aarhus Vand, Udaipur Municipal Corporation, and the state of Rajasthan. The board will meet three times - synchronized with the SC meetings.

Capacity strengthening

The project will build a strong research alliance between Denmark and India. A key component is capacity development of Indian and Danish junior researchers in interdisciplinary approaches to understand and manage complex water systems in semi-arid areas under intensive use and vulnerable to unsustainable use and long-term negative impacts. The junior researchers will be the key researchers of the project and thus pivotal to implementing the project.

Workshops in India will engage local stakeholders, managers, municipal and state authorities, and research institutions to inform on the project, to develop a citizen science approach, and to discuss outcomes and options for improved water management at various levels. These interactive processes will help develop capacity beyond the researchers of the project supporting the long-term goals of the Strategic Sector Cooperation between India and Denmark on Sustainable Urban Water Management.


The proposed research project will be coordinated through the project advisory board with other on-going activities in the region including the Udaipur Smart City Project and the Vidya Bhawan-CPR-Municipal Corporation - HZL joint program on Sanitation Management.

The research program will foster productive engagements and partnerships among the participating agencies in India and Denmark. The program will network and engage secondary line academics, researchers, agencies and governments.

Publication and dissemination strategy

The research of the proposed project will be published in international peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences as joint contributions.

Further, the research results will be disseminated to researchers and stakeholders at national and local workshops. Communication strategies include media outreach campaigns, press events, dissemination through social media, public events, website, newsletter, policy briefs, and other platforms.

List of references

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Amit, D, Jethoo, AS, Poonia, MP, Impact of drought on urban water supply: A case study of Jaipur City, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), 1(3), 2012.

Ansper A, Alikas K., Retrieval of chlorophyll a from Sentinel-2 MSI data for the European Union water framework directive reporting purposes, Remote Sensing, 11, 64, 2019.

Bulkeley H, Mol AP, Participation and Environmental Governance: Consensus, Ambivalence and Debate, 2003.

City Development Plan for Udaipur 2041, 2014, 240 pp.

Fact finding mission report on Udaipur, Royal Danish Embassy, New Delhi; Innovation Center Denmark, India; The East Asiatic Company Foundation, 2015.

Doherty J, Calibration and uncertainty analysis for complex environmental models, Watermark Numerical Computing, 2015.

Entekhabi D, Njoku EG, O'Neill, P.E, Kellogg KH, Crow W, Edelstein WN, Entin J, Goodman SD, Jackson TJ, Johnson J, Kimball J, Piepmeier J, D. Koster RD, Martin N, Mcdonald K, Moghaddam M, Moran S, Reichle R, Shi J, van Zyl J, The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, Proceedings IEEE, 98(5), 704 - 716, 2010.

Gomani MC, Dietrich O, Lischeid G, Mahoo H, Mahay F, Mbilinyi B, Sarmett J, Establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a tropical African catchment: An integrated participatory approach. Physical, Chemical of the Earth Parts A/B/C, 35, 648 - 656, 2010.

Garg K K, Wani SP, Barron J, Karlberg L,Rockstrom J 2013, Up-scaling potential impacts on water flows from agricultural water interventions: Opportunities and trade-offs in the Osman Sagar catchment, Musi sub-basin, India, Hydrological Processes, 27(26), 3905-3921, 2013.

Government of India, Ministry of Water Resources, Central Ground Water Board, Ground Water Scenario, Udaipur District, Rajasthan, 2013.

Groundwater Year Book 2016-2017, Rajasthan State, Government of India, Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation, Central Ground Water Board, Western Region, Jaipur, 2017, 116 pp.

Henriksen HJ, Troldborg L, Nyegaard P, Sonnenborg TO, Refsgaard JC, Madsen B, Methodology for construction, calibration and validation of a national hydrological model for Denmark, Jornal of Hydrology, 280, 52 - 71, 2003.

Huang CC, Zhang YL, Huang T, Yang H, Li YM, Zhang ZG, He MY, Hu ZJ, Song T, Zhu AX, Long-term variation of phytoplankton biomass and physiology in Taihu lake as observed via MODIS satellite, Water Research, 154, 187-199, 2019.

IPCC, Climate Change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability part B: Regional aspects, contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge; NewYork: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Kerr Y, Waldteufel P, Wigneron J-P, Delwart S, Cabot F et al., The SMOS mission: new tool for monitoring key elements of the global water cycle, Proceedings, IEEE, 98(5), 666-687, 2010.

Kongo VM, Kosgei JR, Jewitt GPW, Lorentz SA, 2010. Establishment of a catchment monitoring network through a participatory approach in a rural community in South Africa, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14, 2507-2525, 2010.

Mangal H, Pathania S, Aquatic resources: a case study of Udaipur ‘city lakes’, Rajasthan, M. Ravat et al. (eds.), Aquatic Ecosystem: Biodiversity, Ecology and Conservation, Springer India, 2015.

Mehta A, Ecotechnological management and operation of selected surface reservoirs of upper Berach basin, Udaipur, MSc thesis, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, 2009, 149 pp.

Meyer R, Kragh SJ, Andreasen M, Zhang W, Fensholt R, Stisen S, Jensen KH, Looms MC, Downscaling satellite derived soil moisture for application in medium sized hydrological catchment models, To be submitted for publication, 2019.

Montzka C, Rötzer K, Bogena HR, Sanchez N, Vereecken H, A new soil moisture downscaling approach for SMAP, SMOS, and ASCAT by predicting sub-grid variability, Remote Sensing, 10(3), DOI: 10.3390/rs10030427.

Njue N, Stenfert Krose J, Gräf J, Jacobs SR, Weeser B, Breuer L, Rufino MC, Citizen science in hydrological monitoring and ecosystem services management: State of the art and future prospects, Science of Total Environment, Accepted, 2019.

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Pereira-Sandoval M, Urrego EP, Ruiz-Verdú A, Tenjo C, Delegido J, Soria-Perpinyà X, Vicente E, Soria J, Moreno J, Calibration and validation of algorithms for the estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration and secchi depth in inland waters with Sentinel-2, Limnetica, 38(1), 471-487, 2019.

Rajasthan Water Assessment, Potential for private sector interventions, International Finance Corporation, World Band Group, 2013, 137 pp.

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Weeser B, Kroese JS, Jacobs SR, Njue N, Kembo Z, Ran A, Rufino MC, Breuer L, Citizen science pioneers in Kenya - A crowdsourced approach for hydrological monitoring, Science of the Total Environment, 631-632, 1590-1599, 2018.

Wiliams M, Kookana RS, Mehta A, Yadav SK, Tailor BL, Maheshwari B, Emerging contaminants in a river receiving untreated wastewater from an Indian urban centre, Science of Total Environment, 647, 1256-1265, 2019.

Walker D, Forsythe N, Parkin G, Gowing J, 2016, Filling the observational void: Scientific value and quantitative validation of hydrometeorological data from a community-based monitoring programme, Journal of Hydrology, 538, 713 - 725, 2016.

Walker D, Haile AT, Gowing J, Forsythe N, Legesse Y, Gebrehawariat G, Hundie H, Berhanu D, Parkin G, Guideline: Community-based hydroclimate monitoring, REACH Working Paper 5, University of Oxford, UK, 2019a, 41 pp.

Walker D, Haile AT, Gowing J, Forsythe N, Parkin G, Guideline: Selection, training and managing para-hydrologists, REACH Working Paper 6, University of Oxford, UK, 2019b, 21 pp. Weeser B, Stenfert Kroese J, Jacobs SR, Njue N, Kemboi Z, Ran A, Rufino MC, Breuer L, Citizen science pioneers in Kenya - A crowdsourced approach for hydrological monitoring, Science of the Total Environment, 631-632, 1590-1599, 2018.

Yang X, Chen L, Evaluation of automated urban surface water extraction from Sentinel-2A imagery using different water indices, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 11(2), 026016(2017), doi:10.1117/1.JRS.11.026016.


The project is funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark through Danida


Integrated Water Resources Assessment of Udaipur District Project information displayed over hare